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Home 오피니언 Public Charge 공적부조 公的扶助 Public Benefits

Public Charge 공적부조 公的扶助 Public Benefits

공지사항: [시민권 시험문제 – 예전문제 사용함]

2020년 12월 1일 이후에 서류를 접수한 시민권신청자에게 적용되는128문제를 기본으로하는 새롭게 편성된2020년형 시민권시험문제는 2021년 2월 2일 발표된  대통령 행정명령(Executive Order on Restoring Faith in Our Legal Immigration Systems and Strengthening Integration and Inclusion Efforts for New Americans) 의 내용을이행하는 일환으로 2021년 4월 19일  이후부터는 사용하지 않게 됩니다.  따라서2021년 4월 19일 이후 부터는  2008년에 발표되어 현재 사용하고 있는 100문제형으로 시민권 인터뷰를 하게 됩니다. 

2020년 12월 1일 이후에 시민권신청서류를 접수하여 2021년 4월 19일 이전에 인터뷰를 하게되는 시민권 신청자들은 100문제형 과 128문제형을 원하는대로 선택하여 인터뷰에 응할 수 있습니다.

아래 설명되는 내용은 콜로라도타임즈 (Colorado Times) 에 제공되었으므로 타회사 또는 개인의 무단 복제를 금합니다. 설명된 내용은 2021년을 기준한 미국이민법률정보이며 일반적인 경우에만 적용될 수 있는 내용입니다. 설명된 내용 의 대부분은 실제상황에도 적용될 수 있으나 전문가의 보충설명이 필요한 부분도 있습니다.  전문용어의 번역상에서 발생할 수 있는 해석상의 차이 또는 편집과정에서 오타가 발생할 수 도 있으므로 설명된 내용에 관한 보다 정확한 정보를 원하시는 경우에는 본 이민법전문법인 으로 직접 문의 하시길 바랍니다. 제공되는 내용은 본이민법전문법인 홈페이지 (www.RLimmigration.us) 에서도 열람이 가능합니다.

1. 개요

공적부조 (公的扶助) 란 한 사회의 빈곤선이하 저소득계층에게 국가가 기본적인 생계유지를 위하여 생계보호, 의료보호, 교육보호, 주택보호 등의 급여를 지급하는 사회보장제도의 하나입니다. 공적부조는 개인의 근로소득이나 사회보험제도에 의해 소득보장이 충족되지 못하는 국민에 대한 가장 기초적인 사회적 보호장치라 할 수 있습니다. 대한민국 법령에서는 공적부조, 공공부조, 사회부조, 혹은 국민부조라는 용어로 이 제도를 정의 하고 있으며 미국법에는 Public Benefits 또는 Public Charge 라는 용어로 이 제도를 정의 하고 있습니다.  

이번 장에서는 미국법에 정의된 Public Charge에 관해서 알아보고 그 내용이2020년 2월 24일 부터 미국내에서 영주권을 신청할때 영주권 심사에 어떤 영향을 미치는지 살펴 보겠습니다.

2. §212.21(a) Public Charge 정의

Public Charge에 관한 독자의 이해를 돕기 위하여 법전의 원문을 먼저 소개합니다. 미국법에 Public Charge 는 아래와 같이 정의 되어 있습니다.

  • Public Charge. Public charge means an alien who receives one or more public benefits, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, for more than 12 months in the aggregate within any 36-month period (such that, for instance, receipt of two benefits in one month counts as two months).
  • Public benefit. Public benefit means:
    • Any Federal, State, local, or tribal cash assistance for income maintenance (other than tax credits), including:
      • Supplemental Security Income (SSI), 42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.;
      • Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), 42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.; or
      • Federal, State or local cash benefit programs for income maintenance (often called “General Assistance” in the State context, but which also exist under other names); and
    • Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), 7 U.S.C. 2011 to 2036c;
    • Section 8 Housing Assistance under the Housing Choice Voucher Program, as administered by HUD under 42 U.S.C. 1437f;
    • Section 8 Project-Based Rental Assistance (including Moderate Rehabilitation) under Section 8 of the U.S. Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f);
    • Medicaid under 42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq., except for:
      • Benefits received for an emergency medical condition as described in 42 U.S.C. 1396b(v)(2)-(3), 42 CFR 440.255(c);
      • Services or benefits funded by Medicaid but provided under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.;
      • School-based services or benefits provided to individuals who are at or below the oldest age eligible for secondary education as determined under State or local law; and
      • Benefits received by an alien under 21 years of age, or a woman during pregnancy (and during the 60-day period beginning on the last day of the pregnancy);
    • Public Housing under section 9 of the U.S. Housing Act of 1937.
    • Public benefits, as defined in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(6) of this section, do not include any public benefits received by—
      • An alien who at the time of receipt of the public benefit, or at the time of filing or adjudication of the application for admission or adjustment of status, or application or request for extension of stay or change of status is—
  • Enlisted in the U.S. Armed Forces under the authority of 10 U.S.C. 504(b)(1)(B) or 10 U.S.C. 504(b)(2), or
  • Serving in active duty or in the Ready Reserve component of the U.S. Armed Forces, or
    • The spouse or child, as defined in section 101(b) of the Act, of an individual who at the time of receipt of the public benefit by such spouse or child, or at the time of filing or adjudication of the spouse’s or child’s application for admission or adjustment of status, or application or request for extension of stay or change of status, had been:
  • Enlisted in the U.S. Armed Forces under the authority of 10 U.S.C. 504(b)(1)(B) or 10 U.S.C. 504(b)(2), or
  • Serving in active duty or in the Ready Reserve component of the U.S. Armed Forces.
    • In a subsequent adjudication for a benefit for which the public charge ground of inadmissibility applies, public benefits, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, do not include any public benefits received by an alien during periods in which the alien was present in the United States in an immigration category that is exempt from the public charge ground of inadmissibility, as set forth in 8 CFR 212.23(a), or for which the alien received a waiver of public charge inadmissibility, as set forth in 8 CFR 212.23(b).
    • Public benefits, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, do not include any public benefits that were or will be received by—
      • Children of U.S. citizens whose lawful admission for permanent residence and subsequent residence in the legal and physical custody of their U.S. citizen parent will result automatically in the child’s acquisition of citizenship, upon meeting the eligibility criteria of section 320(a)-(b) of the Act, in accordance with 8 CFR part 320; or
      • Children of U.S. citizens whose lawful admission for permanent residence will result automatically in the child’s acquisition of citizenship upon finalization of adoption (if the child satisfies the requirements applicable to adopted children under INA 101(b)(1)), in the United States by the U.S. citizen parent(s), upon meeting the eligibility criteria of section 320(a)-(b) of the Act, in accordance with 8 CFR part 320; or
      • Children of U.S. citizens who are entering the United States for the purpose of attending an interview under section 322 of the Act in accordance with 8 CFR part 322.
  • Likely at any time to become a public charge. Likely at any time to become a public charge means more likely than not at any time in the future to become a public charge, as defined in 212.21(a), based on the totality of the alien’s circumstances.
  • Alien’s household. For purposes of public charge inadmissibility determinations under section 212(a)(4) of the Act:
  • If the alien is 21 years of age or older, or under the age of 21 and married, the alien’s household includes:
    • The alien;
    • The alien’s spouse, if physically residing with the alien;
    • The alien’s children, as defined in section 101(b)(1) of the Act, physically residing with the alien;
    • The alien’s other children, as defined in section 101(b)(1) of the Act, not physically residing with the alien, for whom the alien provides or is required to provide at least 50 percent of financial support, as evidenced by a child support order or agreement, a custody order or agreement, or any other order or agreement specifying the amount of financial support to be provided by the alien;
    • Any other individuals (including a spouse not physically residing with the alien) to whom the alien provides, or is required to provide, at least 50 percent of the individual’s financial support or who are listed as dependents on the alien’s federal income tax return; and
    • Any individual who provides to the alien at least 50 percent of the alien’s financial support, or who lists the alien as a dependent on his or her federal income tax return.
  • If the alien is a child as defined in section 101(b)(1) of the Act, the alien’s household includes the following individuals:
    • The alien;
    • The alien’s children as defined in section 101(b)(1) of the Act physically residing with the alien;
    • The alien’s other children as defined in section 101(b)(1) of the Act not physically residing with the alien for whom the alien provides or is required to provide at least 50 percent of the children’s financial support, as evidenced by a child support order or agreement, a custody order or agreement, or any other order or agreement specifying the amount of financial support to be provided by the alien;
    • The alien’s parents, legal guardians, or any other individual providing or required to provide at least 50 percent of the alien’s financial support to the alien as evidenced by a child support order or agreement, a custody order or agreement, or any other order or agreement specifying the amount of financial support to be provided to the alien;
    • The parents’ or legal guardians’ other children as defined in section 101(b)(1) of the Act physically residing with the alien;
    • The alien’s parents’ or legal guardians’ other children as defined in section 101(b)(1) of the Act, not physically residing with the alien for whom the parent or legal guardian provides or is required to provide at least 50 percent of the other children’s financial support, as evidenced by a child support order or agreement, a custody order or agreement, or any other order or agreement specifying the amount of financial support to be provided by the parents or legal guardians; and
    • Any other individuals to whom the alien’s parents or legal guardians provide, or are required to provide at least 50 percent of such individual’s financial support or who is listed as a dependent on the parent’s or legal guardian’s federal income tax return.
  • Receipt of public benefits. Receipt of public benefits occurs when a public benefit-granting agency provides a public benefit, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, to an alien as a beneficiary, whether in the form of cash, voucher, services, or insurance coverage. Applying for a public benefit does not constitute receipt of public benefits although it may suggest a likelihood of future receipt. Certification for future receipt of a public benefit does not constitute receipt of public benefits, although it may suggest a likelihood of future receipt. An alien’s receipt of, application for, or certification for public benefits solely on behalf of another individual does not constitute receipt of, application for, or certification for such alien.
  • Primary caregiver means an alien who is 18 years of age or older and has significant responsibility for actively caring for and managing the well-being of a child or an elderly, ill, or disabled person in the alien’s household.

이번호에서는 독자의 이해를 돕기 위하여 Public Charge 에 관한 미국법 원문을 소개드렸습니다. 다음호에서는 미국법에 위와같이 정의된 Public Charge가 2020년 2월 24일 부터 미국내에서 영주권을 신청할때 영주권 심사에 어떤 영향을 미치는지 한글로 예를들어 살펴 보겠습니다.

(다음호:  Public Charge 계속)

/끝/

자료제공:  RLimmigration P.C. | Law Offices Of Rita R. Lewis | 이민법전문법인

Tel: 720-998-3885 카카오톡 | www.RLimmigration.us | 7535 E. Hampden Ave., Suite 501, Denver, CO 80231

Sponsor: PAL Associates, AMERICA CULTURAL HUB FOUNDATION, Non-Profit Organization, www.TrePal.org

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밝고 행복한 미래를 보는 눈, 소중한 당신과 함께 만듭니다.

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